Anatolia Island, which includes most of modern Turkey, is one of the oldest residential areas in the world and the oldest settlements date back to the Neolithic period.
Anatolia Island, which includes most of modern Turkey, is one of the oldest residential areas in the world and the oldest settlements date back to the Neolithic period. The settlement of Troy appeared in the Neolithic period and continued until the Iron Age, and we have reached through recorded history that Anatolia had spoken Indo-European, Kartvelian, and Semitic languages, as well as other languages. The Hittites came from Indo-Europe to Anatolia gradually from the period 2000-1700 BC. When the first major empire was established in the region by them in the eighteenth century BC until the thirteenth century. Assyrians colonized parts of southeastern Turkey as early as 1950 BC until 612 BC when the Assyrian Empire was conquered by the Chaldean dynasty of Babylon. Library of Celsus in Ephesus in 135 AD.
The Phrygians ruled Asia Minor from the collapse of the Hittite Empire in the 13th century BC until their collapse and the rise of Lydia in the 7th century BC. Many important cities were founded by these colonies, such as Miletus, Ephesus, Smyrna (present-day Izmir), and Byzantium (Constantinople, which later became Istanbul). The first state established in Anatolia by the neighboring peoples was called Armenia. Anatolia was conquered by the Achaemenid Persian Empire during the 5th and 6th centuries and later fell to Alexander the Great in 334 BC. Afterward, Anatolia was divided into a number of small Hellenistic kingdoms (Bithynia, Cappadocia, Pergamum, and Pontus), which succumbed to the Roman Republic in the middle of the first century BC. In the year 324, the Roman Emperor Constantine chose Byzantium as the new capital of the Roman Empire and named it New Rome (which later became Constantinople and later Istanbul). Constantinople became the center of Eastern Christianity and a global civilized center. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, it became the capital of the Byzantine Empire (Eastern Roman Empire). Most of the ecumenical councils were held in Turkey by virtue of being the capital of the empire, perhaps the most important of which were the Council of Nicaea, the Council of Ephesus, and the Council of Chalcedon. The Byzantine state bordered the borders of the Umayyad state at the Taurus Mountains, which was known as the "states of the frontiers", which were ruled by the two parties, until the Seljuks were able to occupy central Anatolia and establish a Muslim kingdom in it. Also, during the tenth century, the Byzantines managed to restore Taurus and occupied Antioch and Aleppo for nearly a century. During the golden age of the Byzantine Empire, especially under the rule of the Macedonian dynasty and the Komnenos, during their reign the Byzantine Empire experienced a cultural and scientific renaissance, and Constantinople was the leading city in the Christian world in terms of size, wealth and culture. During the Crusades, the Kingdom of Konya was established in the south of present-day Turkey alongside the Principality of Antioch, and the Byzantine Empire allied with the arrivals more than once, perhaps the most famous of which was with the Kingdom of Jerusalem, with the aim of occupying Egypt, but the campaign failed. It is noteworthy that the Fourth Crusade headed towards Constantinople itself and occupied it in 1261, but the state did not live long. Despite the re-establishment of the Byzantine Empire in the fourteenth century, it was not a strong state and did not regain its former glory. As for present-day Turkey, that is, Anatolia, it was divided into small warring Islamic states and provinces throughout the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, until the star of Osman I shone, fighting the Byzantines and occupying Cities and fortresses under their control, then he and his successors turned towards the neighboring small kingdoms, annihilating them one after the other, establishing the Ottoman Empire.
Islam in Turkey
The Republic of Turkey is considered one of the countries of the Islamic world, and the percentage of Muslims in Turkey is approximately 97.8% of the Turkish people, and the majority of them follow the Sunni sect. The Turkish constitution does not stipulate an official religion for the Turkish state, but rather guarantees freedom of belief and religion for Turkish citizens as they wish without coercion or obligation.
Despite the rich Islamic history of the Turks during the Ottoman Caliphate period, the modern Turkish Republic, which was founded by Kemal Ataturk, almost severed the link between it and this Islamic history at the legislative and legal levels of the Turkish state, as it adopted the secular approach as a system of government after its establishment in 1923.
Despite the Turkish state's adherence to secular values at the official level, Islam retained its strong presence among the Turkish people, which led in the fifties of the twentieth century to some Turkish politicians expressing their Islamic leanings and trying to take advantage of the popular status of Islam in presenting their plans for the rise of the Republic of Turkey and solving its problems. However, these voices were opposed by the majority of the ruling secular elite in Turkey, because they believed that secularism is a solid principle on which the modern Turkish state was based and should not be ignored. As a system of government in Turkey, which in turn prompted by the eighties of the twentieth century to the emergence of a generation of Turkish politicians began to openly challenge the ruling secular elite of their country and call for the return of Islamic rule in Turkey